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Poldine Demoski Carlo is an author and an elder of the Koyukon Athabascan of interior Alaska. She was born in Nulato, Territory of Alaska in 1920. She grew up in a traditional manner where her family hunted moose, picked berries and fished for salmon on lands and river adjacent to the village.
Carlo married William “Bill” Carlo in 1940. They have produced eight children: five sons (William, Jr., Kenny, Walter, Glenn, and Stewart), and three daughters (Dorothy, Lucy, and Kathleen). and dozens of grand children and great grandchildren.
When Carlo and her husband Bill first moved to Fairbank in the mid fifties, Alaska Natives didn’t have a meeting place to call their own. They wanted to talk about better education and economic opportunities, as well as civil rights.
“Even the people who didn’t drink had no place to go In the 50’s and 60’s except the bars,” said Carlo. “We started inviting them over to our house. For two or three winters, we had different village mushers and their dogs staying here in the woods behind our house.” That all changed after Carlo’s relative Ralph Perdue suggested to her that they start a Native organization in Fairbanks.
“I really didn’t have a vision of what the organization, the Fairbanks Native Association (FNA), would look like”, Carlo said. “I would never have thought it would grow like it has. What started as four or five people meeting around the Carlo kitchen table has grown into a multi-million dollar organization with forty different programs and a staff or over 200”.
Since the 50s , Carlo has been involved with FNA through much of its growth by serving as a Board Member and advocate. Carlo is also an active member of the Denakkanaaga Board of Directors, which serves Elders in the interior region of the Tanana Chief’s Conference. She has also served on the University of Alaska Chancellor’s Advisory Committee, the Alaska Native Education Advisory Board, the North Star Borough Senior Citizens Commission, the Alaska Bicentennial Commission Board, the Aboriginal Senior Citizens of Alaska and many other organizations.
She serves as an Elder mentor during the World Eskimo Indian Olympics and can be seen participating in every Doyon, Limited Shareholder meeting. Carlo continues to accept many opportunities to show support to those in times of need by volunteering her support and her voice.
Poldine wrote, Nulato: An Indian Life on the Yukon, a novel describing life in the 1920’s and 1930’s growing up in the Athabascan way in the village of Nulato. Today one of the Athabascan traditions Poldine loves most is singing and dancing. In 1994, Pauline was profiled in “Singing We Come: Shaping our Future Through Language and Song,” an Institute of American Indian Arts collection of stories about Native women singers and storytellers from throughout the United States. Poldine wrote a powerful and moving song about her daughter, and she recently shared it with the Māori whānau visiting in Fairbanks. She continues to share her traditions through singing. She loves to sing with the Koyukon Athabascan Singers. In 2015 when she greeted President Barack Obama in Anchorage she sang an Athabascan song about Denali – to show him how important it was to return the name to indigenous roots.
Carlo has been a mentor to other women through her early demonstration of gathering people together to benefit the community. She continues to accept any opportunity to show support to those in need by volunteering her time. For more than 15 years, Poldine shared Athabascan traditions with children through a program of cultural enrichment in the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District. And she continues to teach different groups today upon request.
Fairbanks Native Association has named its main office building the Poldine Carlo Building in her honor. She is beloved throughout the region.
Induction ceremony acceptance speech https://youtu.be/W8KiuspsAeo
Marie Qaqaun Carroll, Iñupiaq Eskimo from Utqiaġvik, Alaska, is the daughter of Baxter and Rebecca (Aiken) Adams and the oldest girl in a family of twelve children. As the oldest girl, Marie mostly grew up with her older brothers, tagging along wherever they went, something she admits turned her into a tomboy, which she credits for giving her thick skin and left her not easily intimidated, traits she relied on in many situations later in life. Marie has been an active member of the North Slope community since her time home from high school and college, but it was growing up in a large family dependent on hunting and fishing that would influence her life the most. Marie’s uncle, Whitlam Adams, lived with the family and was a whaling captain. With that comes the many responsibilities of working throughout the year to make the hunt of the enormous animal possible: sacrificing time away from family to help the larger community, harvesting other animals to make the skin boat, working with your crew and other captains to ensure maximum benefit to the community, and above all being aware of the risks and potential problems that can occur throughout the hunt. The lessons learned by these activities would remain vital components of Marie’s life, particularly when outsiders made efforts to constrain rights to practice traditions the Iñupiat have done for generations.
When statehood came in 1959, Native communities were shifting away from a seminomadic lifestyle following the animals, to one centered around schools and the church. The one constant in a world of change would be hunting and subsistence activities. Marie came of age during this time, and as communities increasingly focused around schools, she became one of the thousands of Alaska Native children who had to leave home to obtain schooling beyond primary education, and like most from her region, she found herself at Mt. Edgecumbe in Sitka, Alaska. At a young age, Marie was encouraged by her teachers to pursue education and value the academic life, and she looked up to the early leaders who left Utqiaġvik for college like Edna Ahgeak, Rex Okakok, and the late James Nageak. She also found motivation competing with her school peers in trying to outdo each other with high grades. All of this set Marie up to be a hard worker and to achieve the goals she made for herself. She was determined to be the first in her family to attend and graduate from college and she knew that was only possible through hard work and getting out of the comfort zone of her small village.
During her summer’s home from Mt. Edgecumbe, Marie worked various jobs to help her large family including delivering water and ice and working briefly as a ticket agent for Wien Airlines. Around the same time, she started working for the North Slope Borough (NSB), the recently formed municipal government for the region. Her first few positions with the NSB included time as a Borough Clerk recording assembly meetings and working directly under Finance Director, Lloyd Ahvakana. This exposure to the Borough politics and community issues discussed at assembly meetings would be Marie’s first taste of government and politics. In the summer of 1977, working as a counselor at a nearby youth camp, Marie heard news that would change not only her life, but also the lives of everyone who depends on bowhead whaling for survival. A meeting of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was being broadcast over the radio and they were sharing news of a new moratorium imposed by the International Whaling Commission (IWC) on subsistence whaling. Marie recalls hearing grown men cry in despair over the news, a heart wrenching reality of what whaling means to the people who find identity and life in the traditional hunt.
The coastal Iñupiat of northern Alaska had subsisted off the bowhead for thousands of years, and in one fell swoop it was taken away because of IWC’s decision, a decision based off western science that claimed the bowhead population was dwindling toward extinction. As one of the few community members with any education beyond high school, Marie was recruited by her brother Jacob Adams, a whaler, and other captains to do whatever she could to overturn the IWC’s ban. Her brother knew that she wasn’t easily intimidated and thought that would serve her well in the negotiations – many times where she was the only female in the room – bringing her back to childhood of following her brothers around.
Subsistence whaling had been allowed by the IWC due to the immense cultural, social, and nutritional value that the bowhead provided for many Iñupiat groups. So indignant with the decision that they considered a violation of the Arctic people’s basic human rights, Marie and others quickly acted to overturn the moratorium. At that point, there was no funding to fight this ban, and a minimal organization of whalers, so Marie was hired by the NSB to consolidate the captains across northern Alaska, eventually forming the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission (AEWC) as a non-profit organization of independent whaling captains. Marie worked with lawyers, federal regulators, and marine biologists – stressing the importance of traditional knowledge – to show the world that the Iñupiat people knew the animals and the environment better than any western scientist. Through the steady determination of Marie and others, the ban was eventually lifted, ensuring that whaling would continue for the people and communities that rely on the animal for survival.
Marie was instrumental in assisting captains during the first few years of the Commission; she helped negotiate a co-management agreement between hunters and the federal government and worked to resolve a plan for a subsistence quota. Marie remembers snow machining between whaling camps to educate each crew about the importance of following the guidelines and agreements made between the whalers and the government to prove that the Iñupiat people could manage their own subsistence hunts. Marie also helped on the operational side of AEWC, developing an agreement between tribal organizations and the local borough government to support AEWC programs.
Marie accomplished all of this before graduating from college. She could have easily stayed in the village and found work, but she had a personal goal of pursuing higher education, so she returned to school at George Washington University (GW), graduating with a degree in Elementary Education with a minor in Human Development in 1980. During her time at GW, she interned at the law offices of VanNess Feldman and continued acting as a resource to AEWC, consulting on whaling issues, offshore oil and gas projects, and coordinating communications between the NSB on issues involving residents on the North Slope. After graduation, Marie returned home and became the Executive Director of AEWC. As Executive Director, she implemented a formal adoption of the Commission bylaws and managed the day-to-day affairs, while continuing to educate decisions makers in D.C. through educational videos and brochures.
After Marie got the AEWC in working order and the controversial minimal quota was secured, she was ready for a new challenge and began working for the local government during the highpoint of oil and gas activity in Prudhoe Bay, helping to manage the large influx of revenue and bring modern infrastructure to northern Alaska. Hired as the City Manager for the City of Barrow, Marie used National Petroleum Reserve Impact Grant funds to construct Piuraaġvik, the recreation center in Barrow, and helped resolve land issues between the City and other stakeholders before going to work for the North Slope Borough under Mayor George Ahmaogak Sr. as a Public Information Officer.
As Public Information Officer, Marie hosted a weekly radio show to keep the community informed on local concerns and to talk about difficult social issues like drug and alcohol abuse. She eventually became the Division Manager of the Public Information Office, and when a story broke of grey whales stuck in the ice north of Utqiaġvik, Marie was responsible for updating the press. The story began getting international coverage and Marie helped manage the swarm of reporters descending on Utqiaġvik, even shutting out CBS’s 60 Minutes anchor Steve Kroft when he tried calling on her husband, a biologist for the Borough who was monitoring the stuck whales, in the middle of the night for an interview.
After working in the Public Information Office, Marie became Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) to Borough Mayor Ben Nageak, for whom she had been a campaign chair. As CAO, Marie implemented means to reduce spending through changes in internal policies, helped to balance the Borough budget, worked with residents to establish a new water and sewer programs reducing capital costs, and coordinated with federal, state, and local officials on matters related to oil and gas development, promoting the interest of the local governments and residents.
After over a decade of working directly in government, Marie was again ready for a new challenge and switched gears, beginning work at the regional health organization, Arctic Slope Native Association (ASNA) in 1999. Marie began working for ASNA as the Health Director when the price of oil was high and the U.S. economy was still booming after the dotcom craze of the 2000’s, but as oil prices declined, challenges would trickle down to even the most remote parts of the country, including Utqiaġvik.
Marie began her tenure as President and CEO of ASNA in 2007, right before the national recession hit in 2008. She remembers her first few years leading and managing the regional tribal hospital as the most difficult, as a strained economy stifled most large scale projects even as the ASNA Board of Directors prioritized replacing the aging hospital. Difficult times required creative methods, and Marie was able to successfully advocate on behalf of the people of the North Slope by developing relationships with lawmakers in D.C. to secure funding for a new modern healthcare facility. Working closely with Senator Ted Stevens, Marie dedicated her time to facilitating the relationships needed to secure funding, knowing that acting as your own advocate is the most effective way of achieving your goals. She did not shy away from doing the homework needed for the monumental project, hiring experts to do costs estimates and making sure the “powers that be” heard directly from her and North Slope residents on why a new facility was needed. After Senator Stevens’ passing, she worked with Senator Murkowski and brought the Chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee, Senator Harry Reid, to Utqiaġvik for a site visit – Reid later supported funding the much needed project. All of Marie’s dedicated efforts eventually paid off when a new 109,000 square foot hospital was completed in 2013, bringing modern healthcare to North Slope residents.
Since the opening of the Samuel Simmonds Memorial Hospital, the challenges Marie has faced haven’t slowed and she continues to work to make good use of the facility and maximize benefits to North Slope residents by increasing the number of services provided, urging patients to use insurance to help drive down costs, and something Marie is most proud of, increasing cancer screening right in the community. Now, North Slope residents can get breast, colorectal, and lung cancer screening right in the community and through early detection, the survival rate greatly increases. Marie’s vision and clarity in knowing what was needed to build a new hospital and her determination to follow it through brought better care on the North Slope and the region and its residents are all the more healthy because of it. As one colleague describes, Marie has always been like a beating drum working for the region: strong, steady, consistent, and grounded. Because of her hard work, thousands of lives have been positively impacted, from the whaler who is able to continue his subsistence lifestyle and provide food to his community, to the child who dreams of attending medical school so he can return home to and save lives in his hometown, to the young woman who is working to be an important and respected leader of her people.
When asked what her biggest achievements are, Marie responded humbly by saying it was a privilege to be able work on issues to help maintain the culture and spirit of her community, and that while buildings and healthcare are important, the spirit that ties the Iñupiat people together are what’s most important. So although we are gather to celebrate and honor Marie’s lifelong dedication to her community and the Iñupiat people, Marie makes it clear that the accomplishments that she is the most proud of are her children and the life she has built in her home community with her husband, Geoff.
- George Washington University, Washington D.C. 1980
- Bachelor of Arts in Elementary Education with a Minor in Human Development
- Prior to graduation at GW, studied at Evangel College and the University of Alaska Fairbanks
- Graduated from Mount Edgecumbe High School, Sitka, Alaska 1972
Public Service Organization and board memberships
- KBRW – Silaquagvik Communications Board Member
- Alaska Beluga Whale Committee (1988-96) Charter member
- International Porcupine Commission
- National Science Foundation
- BP Advisory Group
- Assembly of God Sunday School Teacher
- Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium
- Alaska Native Health Board
A diminutive woman who often dressed as a man and never married, Nellie Cashman was one of Alaska’s original female entrepreneurs, as well as a prospector and an “angel of mercy.” From opening grocery stores and restaurants to wandering the frontier mining camps of Alaska seeking her fortune, she was soon known by all she encountered for her charity, courage, and determination. Nellie was a resourceful woman who knew what she wanted. She was rewarded with modest wealth, but was constantly giving it away to the poor and needy. She was inducted into the Alaska Mining Hall of Fame in 2006.
Orah Clark was a pioneer school teacher. She was the first Superintendent of the first Anchorage school. She helped establish schools up and down the railroad belt, in Wasilla, Eske, Fairview, and Matanuska. She taught in Unga, Kennicott, Ouzinkie, Takotna, Kiana and Nushagek , ending her 51-year career in Moose Pass. A champion of Native rights, she believed that all children should be integrated in schools to foster individual growth.
Arlene “Buddy” Clay was born in Gardiner Maine, Aug. 2, 1912, to Annie Mayne Palmer and Charles Gordon Palmer. She was raised in Mexico, Maine, and graduated from high school in 1929. She then entered the New England Conservatory of music. She graduated from there in 1934.
Arlene met Earl V. Clay at the conservatory and they married June 26, 1936. They then moved to Manchester, NH, where Earl was the conductor of the NH state symphony. Arlene played trumpet in the conservatory symphony orchestra.
After the war broke out and Pearl Harbor was bombed on the 7th of December 1941, the orchestra broke up. The older workers went into military work and the younger ones joined the military.
In December of 1943 Arlene and Earl left for Seattle by train in response to an ad from the Civil Aeronautics Administration, forerunner of the FAA. After arriving in Seattle, they received six months of training at Boeing field as aircraft communicators and controllers. The Army then flew her and Earl to Nome in a DC3. While in Nome they worked for the CAA as aircraft communicators and controllers. In September of 1944 they transferred to Aniak. Together, they spent 10 years driving dog teams all over the Aniak area. They visited trappers, prospectors and generally explored the rural area.
Upon arriving in Aniak, communication was limited to one telephone at the airport office. As soon as civilians were allowed to obtain ham radio licenses in 1948, Clay received her license, KL707. To this day, Clay has continued to operate her ham radio and, in fact, commented that she selected her retirement home on the basis that “… they let me have my radio with me.”
Arlene and Earl resigned in 1947 from the CAA. Earl died in 1956.
After Earl died Arlene stayed at the homestead, which was about three miles upriver from Aniak. She took two jobs, one as a postal clerk and the other as secretary at the CAA. She commuted to work by dog team in the winter and by boat in the summer.
In 1960 Arlene became the magistrate for the Alaska Courts and was responsible for 12 of the surrounding villages. She served in this position for 17 ½ years. Magistrates had all the power of the U.S. Commissioner. It was during this time that defendants received the right to demand a jury for misdemeanor trials. This resulted in more travel for trials in the villages. The State troopers would fly to Aniak and fly over her cabin at the home site to alert her they were coming and she would get in her boat or dog team and meet them in Aniak.
Arlene Clay was always known as Mrs. Clay. While she didn’t have a degree in law, it was not required at the time. She was known as a tough but fair magistrate judge. One story that circulated concerned a couple of attorneys that came out from Bethel for a hearing. They were dressed in blue jeans and had no ties. She told them that when appearing in her court they were to wear suits and ties or she would hold them in contempt. They got the message and dressed appropriately from then on. She always wore her robe and while court was held in her house in those early days, strict courtroom protocol was required.
Clay retired from the Alaska Court System in 1977 but continued to live in Aniak for many more years. In May, 2012 Clay received the Judge Nora Quinn Award from the Alaska Bar Association which “is presented to an individual Alaskan who has made an extraordinary or sustained effort to assist Alaska’s rural residents, especially its native population, overcome language and cultural barriers to obtaining justice through the legal system.” She was further honored at a reception in Aniak on June 27, 2012, with the dedication of the new courtroom in her honor. The program for this event referred to Clay as “the face of the Alaska Court System during the early years of statehood.”
In 2011, Clay moved to a Wasilla retirement home where she is able to put up her ham antennas, and she continues to participate every night on the ham sniper net. She checks everyone in each Thursday night.
Induction ceremony acceptance speech https://youtu.be/RRqBJ-F7qPk
“Aniak Courtroom Dedicated to Magistrate Clay” ,Mat-Su Valley Frontiersman, July 14, 2012 “99-year-old Ham radio operator still tuned in”, Mat-Su Valley Frontiersman, Oct. 30, 2011 http://jukebox.uaf.edu/site7/p/378, Project Jukebox, Digital Branch of UAF Oral History Program, Judges of Alaska, Arlene Clay
Carol Comeau has led Alaska’s public education system to be responsive to the needs of all children, particularly those who have difficulty achieving academic success in the classroom. While the majority of her career was based in Anchorage as a teacher, principal, administrator, and ultimately in 2000, the Superintendent of the Anchorage School District, she also directed the Alaska Association of School Administrators in the effort to increase state funding for all schools in the state.
During Carol’s service, she appealed to the community as a whole–to citizens who don’t have children, businesses, and service organizations to act on our mutual responsibility to be involved with kids in order to produce caring, competent and involved adults.
With a master’s degree in Vocational Administration from the University of Alaska Anchorage, and a Bachelor of Arts in Business Education conferred by Western State College of Colorado, Carolyn Covington has always been a strong advocate for innovative and inclusive education in Alaska. She began her professional career as a teacher in Whittier, then taught high school in Palmer and ended her professional career as assistant professor at Mat-Su College (UAA).
Covington was successful in receiving grants to develop a district-wide Diversified Occupations program in the Mat-Su Borough School District and another, the Skill Center, providing open-entry, open-exit classes at Mat-Su College. These two programs made it possible for her students, primarily women, to successfully develop office occupations and related skills to complete high school, earn an associate’s degree in Office Occupations and move on to job placement or further education.
Covington was a founding member in 1980 of the Valley Women’s Resource Center, the first resource and shelter in the Mat-Su Borough for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. As a political activist, she served 29 years as secretary of the Alaska Democratic Party and ran unsuccessfully for the Legislature in 1998. She is a tireless volunteer and board member of many non-profit organizations and continues to be a strong political voice in the community. Both in education and community service, Covington is known for her advocacy for women, the disabled and other persons with special needs. She is described as a “model feminist and human being” and was nominated for teaching young women “the way to self-actualization by role-modeling her equal-rights values every waking moment of her life.”
Covington’s service to the community is extensive. In addition to being a charter board member and having filled every executive board position for Valley Women’s Resource Center, she helped to organize the Mat-Su chapter of P-Flag, was a charter member of Mat-Su Coalition for Choice, served on the board and as president of the board of Valley Hospital Association, and served as a board member and secretary of the Matanuska Valley Federal Credit Union. For 15 years, Covington has served as secretary-treasurer of Valley Residential Services, which provides housing for low-income and other persons with special needs. Radio Free Palmer, a young community radio station, has profited from Covington’s expertise as treasurer and volunteer.
Covington also maintains financial records for Church of the Covenant, Mat-Su Senior Services, Mat-Su Democrats and Valley Christian Conference. She is also pianist for Church of the Covenant in Palmer.
Covington has received several awards from the Alaska Democratic Party in recognition of her service and achievements: the 1996 Mat Su Democrat of the Year Award; 2002, “Queen Bess” Award given to women for service to party, state, and nation; 2004, Alaska Democratic Party’s Lifetime Achievement Award; 2012, Outstanding Service Award on the occasion of her retirement as secretary. However, Carolyn would say that her greatest achievement is the love of her husband and their large family.
Induction ceremony acceptance speech https://youtu.be/0LZKJXOgGzQ
As the eldest child of the Rev. Ralph Carson and the granddaughter of another Baptist minister, Kit was inspired by the power of their sermons. When Kit was in high school, her family settled into Bloomington, Ill., — a community with old oaks, beautiful buildings and a strong history. Kit was a successful student, following the model of her family. She excelled in speech and drama, and was a star in many of the college theater productions at Illinois Wesleyan, her alma mater. Clearly, she was inspired not only by the skillful speech she saw in her father’s sermons but by the commitment to community which her parents instilled in their children. With the tenor and strength of her father’s sermons as a backdrop, Kit employed her voice and stage skill to move mountains, including giving testimony for statehood before Congress, and testifying before the Anchorage City Council on many community causes.
As a young college graduate, Kit traveled to Ketchikan, Alaska, to visit a childhood friend who had married a coast guardsman stationed there. In Ketchikan she was asked to do a radio show for “shut ins”, using her voice as an inspiration to others. Short months after arriving, she met Edwin Crittenden, a young Coast Guard lieutenant. They were married within the year. After World War II, the couple returned to “the states”, but their love of Alaska brought them back to Anchorage in 1949. They raised their family of six children and numerous Irish setters in the home Ed designed for them below 15th and F Streets. It was this union of Kit, Ed and Alaska that provided the background for her achievements. Kit was awed by the physical beauty of Alaska. Married to an architect, they were committed to bringing the beauty of the physical world to the growing city of Anchorage. This was to be the basis from which she was able to inspire community leaders to see what Anchorage could be: a city beautiful enough to “match its mountains”.
In the KSKA “Forget-me-Not” interview Kit provided, she describes how she was able to use her vision and speaking skills to persuade city officials to redesign the proposed expansion of C Street – elevating it to pass over the Chester Creek greenbelt instead of bisecting the land with a large road.
“I could see that we had to have more trails, so I began to make the case to citizens and leaders from all over town. We could not have the children and bikers walking up and over C Street with cars rushing by; we needed an underpass for safe trails. As I spoke with people, they would say, ‘I believe in that, I will vote for that, we WILL have that!’ Soon, we formed the Citizens Committee to Save Chester Creek Greenbelt Park, and our group was able to win our case in court. At the time, the city manager said, ‘If we are going to have pedestrian underpasses at C Street, we are then going to do it for all the roads that are built over the Chester Creek greenbelt’.
Never paid for her work, Kit devoted endless hours to inspiring Anchorage mayors and other elected officials to envision the beautification of Anchorage as well as the preservation of its historic buildings through wise planning and development. Historic preservation of a community that was only 50 years old was a radical notion in 1970. In 1974, the late Lucy Cuddy wrote: “New York has Ada Louise (Huxtable, then-architecture critic for the Wall Street Journal and outspoken advocate for preservation of New York’s historic landmarks); Anchorage boasts Kit. We are proud!”
Kit will be remembered for her role in the creation of the Chester Creek greenbelt, as well as the preservation of the Oscar Anderson House at Elderberry Park, establishing the Urban Design Commission and the Anchorage Historic Preservation Commission, which she chaired for ten years. Most recently, she authored “Get Mears!” a nationally recognized biography of Col. Frederick Mears, who supervised the construction of the Alaska Railroad. He was also responsible for the planning and the design of the town site that became Anchorage. Kit’s significant efforts all carried the honorable objective of bringing the people of Anchorage to a sense of our community’s beauty and history. Whether providing testimony to Congress for statehood or arguing for the preservation of historic homes, Kit had a vision that was infectious. With her skills and tenacity, she inspired us to work toward a community that celebrates its beauty as well as its past. Kit was a pioneer for community involvement. Her accomplishments show that with a strong vision, tempered speech and firm persistence, a voice for beautification and preservation can be heard. Kit Crittenden made Anchorage a better place to live.
Created from her family’s personal memories and experiences.
Induction ceremony acceptance speech https://youtu.be/VJ6y9HSYOyE
Marvel Crosson learned to fly in San Diego, California. She followed her brother, Joe Crosson, to Alaska in 1927, where she received the first aviation license issued to a female pilot in the Alaska Territory. The press nicknamed her “Bird Girl” and “Pollyanna of the North” in honor of her exploits, which included setting a new altitude record for women in 1929. Marvel died in August, 1929, when her parachute failed to open properly after the plane’s engine quit.
Jeanmarie Larson Crumb was born on the summer solstice, June 21, 1945 at St. Joseph’s hospital in Fairbanks, Alaska. Her mother could hear the cheering from the crowd watching the traditional midnight sun baseball game. The new baby was born at the end of the Second World War, at a time that the United States and her allies emerged victorious. It was a time of hope and soon became a time of great prosperity and growth, “the fabulous fifties”. Although her family had modest means, the optimism of the times profoundly influenced Jeanmarie’s world view. At the time of her graduation from high school in 1963, the direction that the country and the world seemed to be headed was encouragingly positive. The optimistic outlook became a permanent part of her character.
Her mother Alice read to her from an early age and helped her to learn the alphabet before starting school. Thus began a lifelong love of books. Her Fairbanks elementary school did not have a library for the elementary grades, but each elementary classroom had two or three large bookcases filled with children’s literature. In grade three the entire collection of books was exchanged with the other third grade class at the Christmas holiday. Jeanmarie remembers reading all of the books from both collections.
Strict and demanding old fashioned teachers with lace up shoes with clunky heels were the norm at Main school in Fairbanks. In fifth grade Miss Wilson required recitation of lengthy poems in front of the class. Although Fairbanks was a small isolated town in the far north, the education system was exceptional.
Her father fostered in her the expectation that she would attend college. Beginning with grade 7, he had her accompany him to the bank every two weeks when he received his paycheck. He had her fill out a deposit slip and deposit $20.00 into her college fund. The resulting accumulation of funds paid for tuition and books when she attended the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Deeply rooted in Alaska, Jeanmarie Larson Crumb can trace her Native heritage back five generations. Participation in cultural activities and in her Native corporation, Doyon, Ltd., has always been important to her.
Throughout her lifetime she was privileged to receive information, cooperation, and inspiration from many individuals. She acknowledges that her success was dependent upon their encouragement and support. First and foremost she would like to express gratitude to her parents, Albert E. Larson and Alice E. Larson. Her father worked as an engineer on the steamer Nenana for 18 years. Her mother was at one time the youngest postmaster in Alaska.
She would like to recognize her elementary school teachers Gladys Wilson and secondary teachers Doris D Ray and Margie Johnson, as well as her University of Alaska professor David E. Clarke. She also says that D. M. (Mick) Murphy and Ray Barnhart were wonderfully supportive managers of the Alaska Rural Teacher Training Corps (ARTTC). Dennis Demmert is to be credited for telling Jeanmarie about the Harvard American Indian Program. Edna Lamebull was unfailingly supportive during their years together at the Anchorage School District. Patty Dolese shared the day to day management of the Migrant Education Summer Camps and became a permanent friend. Jeanmarie’s academic advisor for her USC doctoral program was Dr. John W. Stallings. He authorized her to be able to finish her coursework in Alaska after she discovered that she was severely allergic to the Los Angeles smog. Other friends who played vital roles are Kristine Block and Dee Gould.
Upon completion of her Masters degree in Education at Harvard, Jeanmarie Larson Crumb was invited by Senator Ted Stevens to work in his Washington D.C. Office. She politely declined, as she had decided to resume her career in Alaska. Early in her career she had decided to focus her efforts on serving Alaska Native people. She had the good fortune to work for the Fairbanks Native Association, the Alaska Federation of Natives, the Alaska Native Foundation, Cook Inlet Native Association, and the Alaska Native Health Board.
Passage of the federal Indian Self Determination Act in 1974 coincided with her appointment in December of 1975 to President/Executive Director of the Cook Inlet Native Association (CINA). BeIng In the right place at the right time meant that the organization went through a period of rapid growth as the new law enabled Native American non profits to begin to take over management of programs formerly managed by the federal government. During her tenure both BIA Social Services and Employee Assistance were transferred to CINA. While at Cook Inlet Native Association she initiated regional health programs that became the model for the rest of the state. CINA eventually grew into the Southcentral Foundation.
Jeanmarie Larson Crumb believes that she was born at the perfect time to participate in Alaska community life, as her life has been synonymous with larger major historical waves such as the end of World War II, the Women’s Movement, the Alaska Native Land Claims Settlement Act, the Indian Self-Determination Act, and the environmental movement.
She has been a role model for other women who aspire to careers in public service, public health and education. Since a second retirement in 2006 Jeanmarie has enjoyed traveling and spends a few months in the winter in an RV community in Arizona. She is also working on a book about her mother’s life.
Chronological List of Positions and degrees earned:
Social Studies/, English Teacher, Kenai Peninsula Borough School District, 1968-1969
Program Manager, Employee Assistance Program, Fairbanks Native Association, 1969-1971
Deputy Director, Alaska Federation of Natives, Alaska Student Higher Education Services, 1971-1972
Alaska State Operated Schools System, Project Assistant, Alaska Rural Teacher Training Program, 1972-1974
Harvard Graduate School of Education, 1974-1975, Ed. M.
Executive Director/President Cook Inlet Native Association, 1975-1977
Alaska Native Foundation Village Management Assistance Program, 1978-1979
Anchorage School District, Director of Community Relations, 1979-1988
Coordinator Migrant Education Anchorage School District, 1989-1997
University of Southern California, Ed. D, School Administration, 1992
Candidate for Lt. Gov. Green Party, 1990
Barbara Brennan School of Healing, Certificate, 1999
Health Policy Specialist, Alaska Native Health Board, 2002-2004
State of Alaska Department of Health and Social Services Tobacco Disparities Coordinator, 2004-2006
Alaska Native Education Association
Alaska Governor’s Council on Career and Vocational Education (served 8 years, chaired one year)
Alaska Children’s Services Board of Directors
Cook Inlet Soroptimist Club
Commissioners Coalition for Native Education
Anchorage School District Indian Education Advisory Committee (chair)
Anchorage School District Minority Educational Concerns Committee
Alaska Challenger Learning Center Steering/Advisory Committee
Phi Delta Kappa
Who’s Who of American Women 1989/1990 Edition
Notable Alaskan Women published by the Alaska Commission on the Status of Women
Induction ceremony acceptance speech https://youtu.be/upLJ930ayeM
Betty Jane Puckett (later spelling her name Betti) was born July 21, 1924, in O’Neill, Neb., to Fay and Nellie Puckett, grew up in Nebraska and earned a liberal arts degree from Doan University. The consummate educator, Betti started out teaching high school biology, English and Spanish. In the early 1940s, she pulled up her Nebraska roots and moved to Seattle to take on a new career in banking at the Bank of California. It was while living in Seattle, that she met the love of her life Alaska attorney Dan Cuddy, on a blind date, and that blind date wove into a marriage that lasted 62 years – from 1948 until her death in 2010. The Cuddys spent their honeymoon on the new Alaska Highway making their way home.
Betti’s community leadership in Alaska began in the 1950s when she was a young mother, and she volunteered as a Girl Scout leader and secretary/treasurer of the Anchorage Women’s Club. She then held a seat on the organizational committee for what became Alaska Pacific University.
An advocate for well rounded education, Betti organized the Treasures of Sight and Sound (TOSS) in the 1960s. TOSS was the self-funded predecessor to the Community Schools Program, which paved the way for local theater productions. For almost six decades, Anchorage children who’ve turned a cartwheel, played an instrument, sang a song or acted out a scene on stage can thank Betti Cuddy for the chance to do so. She and the program received a Gold Pan Award from the Greater Anchorage Chamber of Commerce in 1972. “I just thought the schools should be teaching more than the ‘three Rs’,” Betti said. After Community Schools took over from TOSS, Betti became a prolific patron of the Anchorage arts, especially the theater. She became a board member for the Alaska Center for the Performing Arts and that group’s Symphony Committee.
During the late 1970s, Betti sat on the State Board of Education, and continued to be a prolific patron of Anchorage arts, especially the theater. She served as a board member of Alaska Center for the Performing Arts and that group’s Symphony Committee. A lifetime member or the Anchorage Women’s Club, she helped form the organization’s FREE Committee, a grass-roots women’s only political advocacy effort in the 1970s. Cuddy was named honorary chairwoman of the YWCA Anchorage Academy of Woman Achievers. At the university level, Betti played a major role in the renovation of the Lucy Cuddy Center on the University of Alaska Anchorage campus and helped develop a renewed focus for the university’s culinary arts and hospitality programs through remodeling the facility and retooling the curriculum. “She was an ardent supporter of UAA’s Lucy Cuddy Hall and a tremendous fan of the Culinary Arts, Hospitality, Dietetics and Nutrition Program,” said Tim Doebler, the program’s UAA Director. “She will be greatly missed and her kindness will always be remembered. This program and facility would not be what it is today if it hadn’t been for her. I feel like I’ve lost a co-worker.”
In her most recent years, Betti Cuddy was a supporter of the Cuddy Family Midtown Park near the Loussac Library in Anchorage. When completed, the park will include a covered stage and seating area for outdoor theatrical venues, amenities Betti felt were important to encourage community performances. In honor of her efforts as a supporter, a landscaped area of the park was designated “Betti’s garden.” On Aug. 16, 2001, one of Cuddy’s granddaughters was killed by a drunk driver. In the aftermath, Cuddy devoted herself to battling alcohol abuse by facilitating communication between parents and children on the subject. Above all of Betti Cuddy’s community activities, however, she considered her most important role was as a wife to Dan, and mother to their six children: Betsy (David) Lawer, David (Kathy) Cuddy, Gretchen Cuddy, Jane (Gary) Klopfer, Lucy (Mark) Mahan, and Laurel (Fred) Stutzer.
Many believed Betti’s greatest strength was her unusual ability to organize people and get them moving in the same direction. She consistently displayed this ability throughout a lifetime of service in Alaska, and she instilled her views on community service in all her children.
Betti Cuddy impressed everyone with initiative and a take-action approach to address problems or fill needs she witnessed in the community. When she saw something she thought needed to be done, she did something about it. Betti was always reluctant to “toot her own horn.” But her forthrightness and willingness to sacrifice her own time and money provided a great example of community involvement to countless women.
Induction ceremony acceptance speech https://youtu.be/DWotZEPJNyU
http://www.fnbalaska.com/44.cfm?id=173 — Obituary
http://www.adn.com/2010/01/13/1092462/arts-patron-education-leader-betti.html – Obituary
http://www.newsminer.com/view/full_story/5554466/article-Anchorage-arts-patron-Betti-Cuddy-dead-at-85 — Obituary
Lucy Evelyn Huie Hon was born of German and Scotch-English parentage, a fifth-generation American, to Daniel Hon (1860-1929) and Margaret Pamelia Gaines Hon (1867-1939) on Aug. 2, 1889, in Waldren, Scott County, Ark. Her grandparents were farmers, her father a lawyer and a judge. The oldest of four, her siblings were: Mabel Fairfax Hon Woods (1892-1975), Mildred Foster Hon Murry (1897-1967) and Daniel Gaines Hon (1898-1950).
Cuddy graduated from college in 1911 and became a teacher. “I didn’t want to go to the University of Arkansas. … I wanted to go west. … My father told me what to do and I did it,” she is quoted as saying in an Anchorage Times article.
In 1916 the husband of a friend was the superintendent of schools in Valdez and sent her a cablegram offering her the position of principal to the upper level students – five high school students and three eighth graders. So after teaching school for five years, Cuddy left her family home by herself, traveled from Fort Smith, Ark., across the continent by train for four days and four nights, to Seattle, Wash., and then embarked on a seven-day boat trip to Valdez. She immediately fell in love with Alaska. When reminiscing, she used to say that as she walked down the long wooden walkway from the boat to town, the thing she remembered most was that it was 11 o’clock at night and it wasn’t dark yet, there were waterfalls and everything was so quiet. It was so peaceful.
Valdez was a bustling town of only 500, four men for every woman. In the 1970s she told an audience at the Anchorage Museum that she ate at a boarding house where there were about a dozen men and she was the only woman but not one of those men was someone you would want to marry, in fact, most would “bore the life out of you.” She would eventually meet Warren Cuddy, a young law graduate from Puget Sound College, and said he was worth the wait.
In many of her interviews Cuddy liked to tell the story of Warren’s proposal to her. She says a woman who was “quite the social dame” of Valdez asked her whether Warren had proposed yet. When Cuddy said no, she suggested that maybe if she would quit her incessant talking he might be able to get a sentence out and ask her.
Lucy Hon, 27, and Warren Ninde Cuddy, 30, were wed in Fort Smith, Sebastian County, Ark., on Aug. 15, 1917. They returned to Valdez afterwards.
After a couple of years passed, the Cuddys had two boys, David Warren, born in 1919 and Daniel Hon, born in 1921. She claimed that the babies were the most important things that ever came into her life.
United States President Warren G. Harding and Vice President Herbert Hoover visited Alaska to mark the beginning of the railroad in 1923. Cuddy, normally a woman with impish humor, was tongue-tied as she presented the president a bouquet of blue flowers – historians question whether they really were forget-me-nots as many stories claimed.
In 1933 Warren Cuddy, a Republican, was Valdez District Attorney but politics changed that. He lost his job when the Democrats came to power. The family moved to Anchorage. He set up his law practice and she set about raising the boys. During the next few years, he purchased bank stock and by 1941 he had controlling interest and became the president of First National Bank.
World War II brought tragedy into their lives. Both her sons went off to war but only Dan came back. David was killed in action behind enemy lines in Anzio, Italy. “It was horrible,” Lucy Cuddy later recounted. “He was so against the war. But it was the war and it was your duty.”
Always a woman with lots of energy, she was a driving force in community affairs and helped organize the USO, the Girl Scouts of Anchorage, started the Nurses’ Aide program during WWII, helped found the Cook Inlet Historical Society and volunteered for the Red Cross, which she did most of her life.
She became a bank board member in 1949 and was elected to the office of board secretary. In 1951, upon her husband’s death of a heart attack at 65 years of age, son Dan took over the day-to-day banking, also serving as president, and Lucy Cuddy became chair of the board, a position she held until her death. It is said that she helped guide Alaska’s second-largest financial institution through booms and busts, earthquakes and floods, and expansion across the state.
In the same year she was appointed to the Board of Regents for the University of Alaska, 1956, she was named the chair of the Greater Anchorage United Fund Drive (now the United Way). She received the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the University of Arkansas in 1961, the third woman at the time to receive the honor. In 1972 the Anchorage campus community center of the University of Alaska was named Lucy Cuddy Hall.
In an article honoring her 90th birthday, the Anchorage Times says, “She is inseparable from this community. She inspires the best that dwells in the hearts of each us.” The same paper, two years later, in an article about her death called her “The Grand lady of Anchorage.”
Lucy Cuddy was laid to rest in the Anchorage Municipal Cemetery, Masonic Tract 9, Row 2, Lot 15.
Induction ceremony acceptance speech https://youtu.be/_70Dvlplz7w
- An interview with David Hayes, staff at First National Bank Alaska
- Anchorage Times, March 12, 1982, page 1 & 3
- We Alaskans, Anchorage Daily News Magazine, May 16, 1981, pages 7 & 13
- Arkansas, County Marriages Index, 1837-1957
- Lucy Hon Cuddy Dedication, The Teller, 1982, page 1
- Lucy Cuddy papers, Archives & Special Collections Consortium Library, UAA, Collection number HMC-0095,
- In Memorial http://www.muni.org/Departments/health/cemetery/Pages/honored.aspx